You will find in this bibliography methods such as storytelling, ecological approaches, ceremonial teachings which are all relevant to Indigenous Research Analysis and Methods. These references are available in various bookstores, libraries and web sites. Please do not hesitate to contact us for further information or to suggest a resource we are missing.

Alphabetical Order by Author


Absolon, K., & Willett, C. (2005). Putting ourselves forward: Location in aboriginal research. In L. Brown & S. Strega (Eds.), Research and resistance (pp. 97–126). Toronto: Scholar’s Press.

Absolon, K., & Willett, C. (2004). Aboriginal research: Berry picking and hunting in the 21st century. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 1 5-17.

Anderson, K. (2005). Community-based research and aboriginal women’s health and healing. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved September 10, 2007, from

Archibald, Jo-ann (ed.) 1992. Giving Voice to our Ancestors. Canadian journal of native education, 19 (2).

Basso, B., (1996). Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language Among the Western Apache. NM: University of New Mexico Press

Battiste, M., Bell, L., & Findlay, L.M. (2002). An Interview with Linda Tuhiwai Te Rina Smith. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 26 (2), 169-186.

Battiste, M Bell, L. & Findlay, L.M. (2002). Decolonizing Education in Canadian Universities: An Interdisciplinary, International, Indigenous Research. Canadian Journal of Education, 26 (2), 82-95.

Bishop, R. (1998). Examples of Culturally Specific Research Practices: A Response to Tillman and Lopez. Qualitative Studies in Education, 11 (3), 419-434.

Bishop, R. (1996). Collaborative research stories: whakawhanaungatanga. Palmerston North, N.Z.: Dunmore Press.

Bishop, R. (1998). Freeing Ourselves from Neocolonial Domination in Research: A Maori Approach to Creating Knowledge. Qualitative Studies in Education, 11 (2) p. 199-219.

Bishop, R. & Glynn, T. (1999). Researching in Maori contexts: An interpretation of participatory consciousness, Journal of Intercultural Studies 20 (2).

Blackstock, C. (2011). The Canadian Human Rights Tribunal on First Nations Child Welfare: Why if Canada Wins, Equality and Justice Lose. Children and Youth Services Review, 23 (1), 187-194. doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2010.09.002

BC Association of Aboriginal Friendship Centres. (2010).Indigenizing Outcomes Measurement: A Review of the Literature and Methodological Considerations. Saanichton: BCAAFC. Available

Brown, L.& Strega, S. (Eds.) (2005). Research as Resistance: Critical, Indigenous and Anti-Oppressive Approaches. Toronto: Canada Scholars Press

Castledoen, H. & Kurszewski, D. (2000). Re/searchers as co-learners: Life narratives on collaborative re/search in Aboriginal communities. In proceedings of the 2000 AERC Conference.

Canadian Institute of Health Research. (2007). CIHR guidelines involving for health research involving aboriginal people. Available

Castellano Brandt, M. (2004). Ethics of Aboriginal research. Journal of Aboriginal Health. 1(1), 98-114.

Crazy Bull, C. (1997). A Native Conversation about Research and Scholarship. Tribal College: Journal of American Indian Higher Education, 9 (1), 16–24.

Crazy Bull, C. (1997). Advice for the non-Native researcher. Tribal College: Journal of American Indian Higher Education, 9 (1), 24–25.

Deloria, V.J. (1991). Commentary: Research, Redskins, and Reality. In R.A. Black & T. P. Wilson (Eds.), The American Indian Quarterly (pp.457-467). Berkeley: The Native American Studies Program, University of California at Berkeley.

Deloria, V. [1995] 1997. Red earth,White Lies : Native Americans and the Myth of Scientific Fact . Golden, Colorado: Fulcrum Publishing.

Deloria, V. (1999). Spirit and Reason: the Vine Deloria, Jr., reader. Barbara Deloria, Kristen Foehner &Sam Scinta (eds.). Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum.

Ermine, W. (1999). Aboriginal epistemology. In M. Battiste & J. Barman (Eds.), First Nations education in Canada: The circle unfolds (pp.101-112). Vancouver: UBC Press.

Estrada Jimenez, V.M. (2005). The Tree of Life as a Research Methodology. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 34, 44-52.

Fleras, A. (2004). Researching together differently: Bridging the research paradigm gap. Native Studies Review, 15(2), 117-129.

Fletcher, C. (2002). Community-based Participatory Research Relationships with Aboriginal Communities in Canada: An Overview of Context and Process. A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health, 1(1), 28-60.

Gegeo, D. W. & Watson-Gegeo, K.A. (2001). “How We know”: Kwara´ae Rural Villagers Doing Indigenous Epistemology. Contemporary Pacific: A Journal of Island Affairs 13 (1), 55–88.

Gegeo, David Welchman 2001. Cultural Rupture and Indigeneity: The Challenge of (Re)visioning “Place” in the Pacific. Contemporary Pacific: A Journal of Island Affairs, 13 (2), 491-507.

Gillespie, J., Whitford, D. and Abel, M. (Winter 2010) Community Networking: A Policy Approach to Enhance Aboriginal Child Welfare in Off-Reserve Communities. Indigenous Policy Journal, XXI (3), 1-19.

Grenier, L. (1998). Working with Indigenous Knowledge: A Guide for Researchers . Ottawa: International Development Research Centre. Available

Harrison, B. (2001). Collaborative Programs in Indigenous Communities: From Fieldwork to Practice . Lanham , MD : Altamira Press

Hampton, E. (2005). Memory comes before knowledge: Research may improve if researchers remember their motives. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 21 suppl, 46-54.

Hart, M. (2007). Indigenous Knowledge and Research: The Míkiwáhp as a Symbol for Reclaiming our Knowledge and Ways of Knowing. First People’s Child and Family Review 3 (1), 83.

Hart, M. A. (1996). Sharing circles: Utilizing traditional practice methods for teaching, helping and supporting. In S. O’Meara, & D. A. West (Eds.), From our eyes: Learning from Indigenous peoples (pp. 59-72). Toronto: Garmond Press.

Hart, M. A. (2002). Seeking mino-pimatisiwin. An Aboriginal approach to helping. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing.

Harvey, Graham 2003. Guesthood as Ethical Decolonizing Research Method. Numen 2003, 50(2): 125–145.

Henderson Youngblood, J. (2000). Postcolonial ghost dancing: diagnosing European colonialism. In M.A. Battiste (Ed.), Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision (pp. 56-76). Vancouver: UBC Press.

Health Justice, D. (2004). Seeing (and Reading) Red: Indian Outlaws in the Ivory Tower. In D. Mihesuah Abbott & A. Wilson Cavender (Eds.), Indigenizing the Academy: Transforming Scholarship and Empowering Communities (pp. 100-123). Loncoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.

Hereniko, V. (2000). Indigenous Knowledge and Academic Imperialism. In R. Borofsky (Ed.), Remembrance of Pacific Pasts: An Invitation to Remake History, edited by Robert Borofsky (pp. 78-91). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Heshusius, L. 1994. Freeing Ourselves from Objectivity: Managing Subjectivity or Turning Toward a Participatory Mode of Consciousness? Educational Researcher 23:3, 15–22.

Hermes, M. (1998). Research Methods as a Situated Response: Towards a First Nations Methodology. Qualitative Studies in Education, 11 (1), 151-168.

Irwin, Kathie 1994. Maori Research Methods and Processes: An Exploration. Jelena Porsanger Sites: A Journal for South Pacific Cultural Studies 1994: 28, 25–43.

J. & Stringer, E. (1997). Indigenous Knowledge, Indigenous Learning, Indigenous Research, Curtin Indigenous Research Centrex, Curtin University of Technology: Perth, Western Australia.

Kawagley, A. Oscar (1995). A Yupiaq Worldview: a Pathway to Ecology and Spirit. Prospect Heights: Waveland Press.

Kovach, Margaret, (in press). Emerging from the Margins: Indigenous Methodologies. In S. Strega & L. Brown (Ed.), Research as Resistance: Critical, Indigenous and Anti-Oppressive Approaches to Research. Toronto: Canadian Scholars Press. Chapter 1.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Racialized Discourses and Ethnic Epistemologies. In N.K. Denzin, & Y.S. Lincoln (Eds.), The Landscape of Qualitative Research: Theories and Issues (pp. 398-426). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publications.

Library Access Information-BC [pdf]

Little Bear, L. (2000). Jagged Worldviews Colliding. In M.A. Battiste (Ed.), Reclaiming indigenous voice and vision (pp. 77-86). Vancouver: UBC Press.

Louis, Pualani, R. (2007). Can you hear us now? Voices from the Margin: Using Indigenous methodologies in geographic research. Geographical Research, 45 (2), 130-139.

Maina, F. (2003). Indigenous “Insider” academics: Educational research or advocacy?The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, XXIII(2), 207-226. Available

McDonald, M. & Brownlee, K. (1995). Research with First Nations peoples. In R. Delaney and Keith Brownlee (Eds.) Northern social work practice (pp. 182-195). Thunder Bay: Lakehead University, Centre for Northern Studies.

Menzies, C. (2001). Reflections on Research with, for and Among Indigenous Peoples. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25 (1), 19-36.

Meyer, M. (2004). Ho’oulu our Time of Becoming: Hawaiian Epistemology and Early Writings (pp. viii, 76-88). Ai Pohaku Press: Honolulu

Michell, H. (2005). Nehithawak of Reindeer Lake, Canada: Wordview, Epistemology and Relationships with the Natural World. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 34, 33-43.

The Office of the Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth. (2011). Our Dreams Matter Too: First Nations Children’s Right, Lives and Education. The Office of the Provincial Advocate for Children and Youth, available here.

Pidgeon, M., & Hardy Cox, D. (2002). Researching with Aboriginal Peoples: Practices and Principles. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 26 (2), 96-102.

Richardson, Cathy, Allan Wade and Cheryle Henry, “Islands of Safety
A Safety Planning Model for Urban Aboriginal and Metis Families in Cases of
Violence,” Presentation to Cowichan Tribes Lalum’utul Smun’eem Child and Family Services January 8, 2009, available here.

Rigney, L. (1999). Internationalization of an Indigenous Anticolonial Cultural Critique of Research Methodologies. Wicazo Sa Review, 14 (2).

Ryen, A. (2000). Colonial Methodology? Methodological Challenges to Cross-Cultural Projects Collecting Data by Structured Interviews. In C. Truman, d. Mertens & B. Hnprey (Eds.), Race and inequality (pp. 221-233). London: UCL Press Taylor & Francis Group.

Scheurich, James Joseph & Young, Michelle D. 1997. Coloring Epistemologies: Are Our Research Epistemologies Racially Biased?. Educational Researcher 1997: 26:4, 4–17.

Simpson, L. (2000a). Anishinaabe Ways of Knowing: Aboriginal health, identity, and resources (165-185). Winnipeg: Departments of Native Studies and Zoology, and the Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Manitoba.

Simpson, L. (2000b). Indigenous knowledge and Western Science: Towards new relationships for change. Aboriginal health, identity, and resources(pp. 186-195). Winnipeg: Departments of Native Studies and Zoology, and Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Manitoba.

Smith, G. H. (2000). Protecting and respecting Indigenous knowledge. In M. Battiste (Ed.) Reclaiming Indigenous voice and vision (pp. 209-224). Vancouver: UBC Press.

Stiegelbauer, S. M. (1996). What is an Elder? What do Elders do? First Nations Elders as teachers in culture-based urban organizations. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, XVI(1), 37-66.

Steinhauer, E. (2002). Thoughts on an Indigenous Methodology. Canadian Journal of Native Education 26 (2), p. 69-201.

Steinhauer, P. (2001a). Situating Myself in Research. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25, 183-187.

Stover, Dale 2002. Postcolonial Sun Dancing at Wakpamni Lake. In An Essay about Indigenous Methodology 120 Harvey, G. (ed.) 2002. Readings in indigenous religions. London: Continuum.

Struthers, Roxanne 2001. Conduction Sacred Research: An Indigenous Experience. – WICAZO SA Review Spring 2001:16:1, 125–133. University of Minnesota Press.

Tuhiwai Smith, L. (1999). Decolonizing methodologies: research and Indigenous peoples. New York: Zed Publishing.

Thomas, R. (2005). Honoring the oral traditions of my ancestors through storytelling. In L.A. Brown, & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as resistance: critical, indigenous and anti-oppressive approaches (pp. 237-253). Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.

Utl-Pooh. (2003). Heshook-ish tsawalk: everything is one. UVic IGOV Programs. Protocols and principles for conducting research in an Indigenous context from

Van Der Woerd, K., & Cox, D. (2006). From theory to practice: Methodological and ethical issues for research with First Nations communities. Pimatisiwin, 4(1).

Waterfall, Barbara. (2006). Native peoples and child welfare practices: Implicating social work education.In A. Westhues (Ed.), Canadian social policy: Issues and perspectives. Fourth Edition (pp. 223-244). Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier Press.

Wane, Njoki & Waterfall, Barbara. (2005). Hoops of Spirituality in Science and Education.In H. Menzies & P. Tripp (Eds.), Teaching as Activism: Equity Meets Environmentalism (pp. 47-63). McGill-Queens Press.

Waterfall, Barbara & Maiter, Sarah. (2004). Resisting Colonization in the Academy: From Indigenous/Minoritized Standpoints, Canadian Critical Race Conference. Available at the Simon Fraser University Library website Conference May 2 – 4, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Waterfall, Barbara. (2003). Native People and the Social Work Profession: A Critical Analysis of Colonizing Problematics and the Development of Decolonized Thought.In Westhues, Anne. (Ed.), Canadian Social Policy, (pp. 50-66). Waterloo: Wilfrid Laurier Press.

Waterfall, Barbara. (2002). Reclaiming Identity: Native Wombmyn’s Reflections on Womb-Based Knowledges and Spirituality. In Wane, N., E. Lawson & K. Deliovsky (Eds.), Back to the Drawing Board: African Canadian Women and Feminism, (pp. 292-308). Toronto: Sumach Press.

Waterfall, Barbara. (2002). “NativePeople and the Social Work Profession: A Critical Exploration of Colonizing Problematics and the Development of Decolonized Thought,” Journal of Educational Thought, 36(3). 1 – 23.

Waziyatawin Angela Wilson, Remember This! Dakota Decolonization and the Eli Taylor Narratives ( University of Nebraska, 2005).

Weber-Pillwax, C. (1999). Indigenous Research Methodology Exploratory Discussion of an Elusive Subject. Journal of Educational Thought, 33 (1), 31-45.

Westhues, A., Cadell, S., Karabanow, J., Maxwell, L., & Sanchez, M. (1999). The creation of knowledge: Linking research paradigms to practice. Canadian Social Work Review, 16 (2), 129-154.

Wilson , S. (2001). Self as a Relationship in Indigenous Research. Canadian Journal of Native Education ,25, 91-92.

Wilson , S. (2001). What is Indigenous Research Methodology? Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25 (1), 175-79.

Wilson , S. (2003). Progressing Towards an Indigenous Research Paradigm in Canada and Australia. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 27 (2), 178

Wilson , S. (2008). Research is Ceremony: Indigenous Research Methods. Black Point, N.S: Fernwood Publishing.

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